• Boy speaking letters/sounds

  • What is a Speech-Language Pathologist?

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    A speech-language pathologist is a professional with a Master’s Degree in Speech-Language Pathology or beyond, who evaluates, diagnoses, and provides treatment for children and adults with Speech-Language Disorders or Delays.

    Areas of Speech/Language that are addressed include:

    - Articulation

    - Receptive Language

    - Expressive Language

    - Pragmatics

    - Fluency

    Speech-Language Pathologists in the Arlington Central School District:

    Identify and assess children with communication weaknesses through referrals, screenings, and evaluations.

    - Provide direct intervention services to children in small groups or on an individual basis, depending on need.

    - Educate and consult with parents, teachers, and other school personnel to develop appropriate activities and techniques to improve a child’s communication skills. Make referrals for other services such as audiologist, ear-nose and throat (ENT) doctor, and/or orthodontist.

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  • What is Articulation?

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     A speech sound disorder occurs when mistakes continue past a certain age. Every sound has a different range of ages when the child should make the sound correctly. Speech sound disorders include problems with articulation (making sounds) and phonological processes (sound patterns).

    Adapted from American Speech-Language Hearing Association website, 2015.

    Eligibility for articulation therapy is based on the following:

    • The number of sound errors
    • The effect of sound errors on:
      • Child’s overall intelligibility (how well a child is understood) AND
      • Child’s educational progress
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  • What is Language?

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    A child who is diagnosed with a language disorder may lack age appropriate receptive language and/or expressive language abilities.

    Receptive language refers to a child’s ability to comprehend spoken language.  A child with a receptive language delay may have difficulty comprehending auditory information such as following auditory directions or comprehending stories.

    Expressive language refers to a child’s ability to use language to express his/her thoughts orally. Weakness in expressive language may include a delay in learning appropriate vocabulary (semantics), grammar (syntax), and social use (pragmatics).

    Language disorders can be specific to each child. For example, a child may have a delay in one or both areas of language.

    What is Pragmatics (Social Skills)?

    • Refers to the rules of social language.
    • Using language for different purposes.
    • Following the rules for conversation and storytelling.

    Examples: Taking turns, Personal space, Interpreting facial expressions, Tone of voice.

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  • How can I support my child's speech and language development?

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    Kindergarten Listening and Speaking Milestones


    • Follow 1-2 step directions in a sequence
    • Listen to and understand age-appropriate stories read aloud
    • Follow a simple conversation


    • Be understood by most people
    • Answer simple “yes/no” questions
    • Answer open-ended questions (e.g. “What did you have for lunch today?”)
    • Retell a story or talk about an event
    • Participate appropriately in conversations
    • Show interest in and start conversations

    Tips to Encourage Language Development:

    • Talk with your child frequently
    • Read a variety of books; read often and talk with your child about the story. When discussing books, be sure to connect the story to your own personal experiences. The more background information and vocabulary a child brings to a book he/she reads, the more they will fully understand the information and ideas presented in the book.
    • Help your child focus on sound patterns of words such as those found in rhyming games.
    • Have your child retell stories and talk about events of the day.
    • Talk with your child during daily activities; give directions for your child to follow (e.g. making cookies, setting the table).
    • Talk about how things are alike and different
    • Continue to build vocabulary. Introduce a new word and offer its definition, or use it in a context that is easily understood.
    • Give your child reasons and opportunities to write.

    Adapted from American Speech-Language Hearing Association website, 2015.

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